Ethics Updates

 



Bioethics, Cloning,
& Reproductive Technologies
Last updated: July 10, 2011

Multimedia Resources on Bioethics, Cloning, & Reproductive Technologies

Lawrence M. Hinman
   University of San Diego Spring Semester, 2001

PowerPoint Presentations




Surveys on the Ethics of Reproductive Technologies






Internet Resources on Cloning, Genetics, and Reproductive Technologies

General

Religious Documents

Bioethics in the New Millennium.
   Conference.  Princeton, 1999. Available in RealVideo

  • Dr. Harold T. Shapiro
    Chairman of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission and President of Princeton University
  • Dr. Francis Collins
    Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute of the National Institutes of Health
  • Dr. Ian Wilmut
    Scientist at the Roslin Institute, Edinburgh and scientist who cloned "Dolly" the Sheep
  • Dr. Stephen Fodor
    President and CEO of Affymetrix, Inc, the company that developed the GeneChip system
  • The Ethics of Profit.  The interplay of bioethics and industry. Panelists:
    • Judy Chambers
      Carl Feldbaum
      Leon Rosenberg
      P. Roy Vagelos
      Moderator: Shirley Tilghman
  • Dr. Roy Vagelos
        Chairman of the University of Pennsylvania Board of Trustees
       and former Chairman of Merck & Co.

"Ethics, Health Care and Disability"

Cloning

For an early and classic article on cloning by the co-author of "The Double Helix," see James D. Watson, "Moving toward the Clonal Man," Atlantic Monthly, May, 1971.

  • "Double Trouble," Charlayne Hunter-Gault report on MacNiel-Lehrer NewsHour on the presidential commision's recommendation to ban human cloning and interview with Thomas Murray of the National Bioethics Advisory Comission.

For information on the recent cloning of mice, see the following:

In October 1997 Nature and the British Council in France organized a one day meeting in Paris to debate approaches to the ever more complex issues arising in bioethics.

  • "Too Hot to Handle." Proceedings of the British Council in France's meeting on bioethics.

According to recent reports in Nature and the popular press, scientists at the Roslin Institute in Scotland have succeeded in cloning adult sheep. Here are some  resources for discussing this issue:





Information on



National Bioethics Advisory Commission





A Bibliographical Survey of Philosophical Literature on Bioethics, Cloning, & Reproductive Technologies

Human Gene Therapy

On Human Gene Therapy, see Mary Carrington Coutts, "Human Gene Therapy," Scope Note 24. (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University, 1994); and Walters, LeRoy, and Kahn, Tamar Joy, eds., Bibliography of Bioethics, Vols. 1-19 (Washington, D.C.: Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University).

Surrogacy

On Surrogacy, see the extensive bibliography in Surrogate Motherhood: Politics and Privacy, edited by Larry Gostin (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990), pp. 338-55.

Journals

In addition to the standard ethics journals, see the Hastings Center Reports, BioEthics, Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Journal of Medicine and Philosophy and Law, Medicine & Health Care.

Helen Bequaert Holmes, "Reproductive Technologies," Encyclopedia of Ethics, edited by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1992), Vol. II, pp. 1083-1089

Reports

There have been a number of national commissions, both here and in England, that have prepared reports and policy recommendations on these issues. See, among others, The President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavior Research, Splicing Life: The Social and Ethical Issues of Genetic Engineering with Human Beings (Washington, DC: GPO, 1982); Mary Warnock, A Question of Life: The Warnock Report on Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1985); Jonathan Glover et al., Fertility and the Family: The Glover Report on Reproductive Technologies to the European Commission (London: Fourth Estate, 1989); American Fertility Society, Ethics Committee, Ethical Considerations of the New Reproductive Technologies, in Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 46, No. 3, supplment 1 (1986) and Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 53, No. 6, supplement 2 (1990).. For a religious response to the Warnock report by the Regious Professor of Moral and Pastoral Theory in the Univesity of Oxford, see Oliver O'Donovan, Begotten or Made? (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984). For a survey of results of such reports, see LeRoy Walters, "Ethical Aspects of the New Reporductive Technologies," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, No. 541 (1988). Pp. 646-664. Most recently, see the Report of the National Bioethics Advisory Committee, "Cloning Human Beings."

General Anthologies

There are a number of excellent anthologies available in this area. Among the general anthologies on issues in bioethics, see the excellent Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, edited by Tom L. Beauchamp and LeRoy Walters, Fourth Edition (Belmont: Wadsworth, 1994); for an excellent selection of both philosophical and non-philosophical authors, see Genetic Engineering: Opposing Viewpoints (San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1994) and Carol Levine, ed., Taking Sides: Clashing View on Controversial Bioethical Issues (Guilford, CN: Dushkin, 1995).

Genetic Screening and Engineering

One of the principal areas of concern in regard to genetic screening is sex selection. See Mary Anne Warren, Gendercide: The Implications of Sex Selection (Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Allanheld, 1985); and her "IVF and Women's Interests: An Analysis of Feminist Concerns," Bioethics 2, No. 1 (1988), pp. 37-57; for a review on recent feminist work in this and related areas, see Anne Donchin, "The Growing Feminist Debate Over the New Reproductive Technologies," Hypatia, Vol. 4, No. 3 (1989), pp. 136-149 (also see several other related articles in this volume); and Helen Bequaert Holmes, "Sex Preselection: Eugenics for Everyone?" Biomedical Ethics Reviews&endash 1985, edited by J. Humber and R. Almeders (Clifton, NJ: Humana Press, 1985). Also see Michelle Stanworth, Reproductive Technologies: Gender, Motherhood, and Medicine (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1987).

Genetic Screening

On the more general issues of genetic screening, see the special issue of The American Journal of Law & Medicine, Vol. 17, Nos. 1-2 (1991) entitled The Human Genome Initiative and the Impact of Genetic Testing and Screening Technology. Also see the essays in Code of Codes: Scientific and Social Issues in the Human Genome Project, edited by Daniel J. Kevles and Leroy Hood (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992).

Genetic Engineering

For some excellent resources in regard to questions of genetic engineering, see Ethical Issues in the New Reproductive Technologies, edited by Richard Hull (Belmont: Wadsworth, 1990); Kenneth D. Alpern, The Ethics of Reproductive Technology (New York: Oxford University Press); Sherill Cohen and Nadine Taub, eds., Reproductive Laws for the 1990s (Clifton, NJ: Humana Press, 1989); Ruth F. Chadwick, ed., Ethics, Reproduction, and Genetic Control (London: Croom Helm, 1987); Elaine Baruch, et al., Test Tube Women: What Future for Motherhood? (London: Pandora, 1984) contains essays mostly against new reproductive technologies; Clifford Grobstein's From Chance to Purpose: An appraisal of External Human Fertilization (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1981) and his later Science and the Unborn: Choosing Human Futures (New York: Basic Books, 1988); Joseph Fletcher's The Ethics of Genetic Control: Ending Reproductive Roulette (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1988) strongly presents the case in favor of genetic manipulation, while Gena Corea's The Mother Machine: Reproductive Technologies from Artificial Insemination to Artificial Wombs (New York: Harper and Row, 1985) gives a strong presentation of argruments against such maniupation. For a well-argued and balanced approach to these issues, see The Perfect Baby: A Pragmatic Approach to Genetics, by Glenn McGee.

Also see the issue of The Hastings Center Report, Vol. 24, No. 2 ( March, 1994), with articles by Joseph Palca, "A Word to the Wise; on the Approval of in vitro Fertilization Research;" John A. Robertson, "The question of human cloning;" and Richard A. McCormick, "Blastomere separation: some concerns; embryo splitting as a treatment to in vitro fertilization." For a good collection of essays on the status of the fetus, see Bioethics and the Fetus: Medical, Moral, and Legal Issues, edited by James M. Humber (Clifton, NJ: Humana Press) and Peter Singer et al., eds, Embryo Experimentation (New York: Cambridge University Press). For a critique of the philosophical viability of the notion of the "pre-embryo," see A. A. Howsepian, "Who or What Are We?", Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 483-502, which replied to Richard McCormick's "Who or What is the Preembryo?" in the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal; Alan Holland, "A Fortnight of My Life Is Missing: A Discussion of the Status of the Human 'Pre-Embryo,'" Applied Philosophy, edited by Brenda Almond and Donald Hill (London: Routledge, 1991), pp. 299-311.

Surrogacy

There is a wealth of literature available on surrogacy. See, among many others, On the Problem of Surrogate Parenthood: Analyzing the Baby M Case, edited by Herbert Richardson (Lewiston, N.Y.: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1987), a collection of ten essays from a variety of standpoints dealing with the moral issues raised by surroacy in general and the Baby M case in particular; New Approaches to Human Reproduction, edited by Linda M. Whiteford and Marilyn L. Poland (Boulder: Westview Press, 1989); Ruth Macklin, Surrogates and Other Mothers (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994) covers a range of issues about assisted reproduction, including surrogacy; also see her earlier book, Moral Choices: Bioethics in Today's World (New York: Pantheon Books, 1987). For a strong set of arguments against surrogacy, see Thomas A. Shannon, Surrogate Motherhood: The Ethics of Using Human Beings (New York: Crossroad, 1988). Also see Alexander Morgan Capron, "Grandma? No, I'm the mother! postmenopausal women becoming pregnant with physician aid," The Hastings Center Report, Vol. 24 ; No. 2 (March, 1994), pp. 24 ff. and B. D. Colen, "Whatever Happened to Baby Jane Doe? and Other Cases Involving Reproductive Ethics," The Hastings Center Report, Vol. 24 ; No. 3 (May, 1994), pp. 2 f.

Bioethics and Religion

Among the works in this area, see John Mahoney's Bioethics and Belief (Westminster, Maryland: Christian Classics, 1984), which explores the possibility of a dialogue between Christianity and medicine in regard to IVF and other reproductive issues; Theology and Bioethics. Exploring the Foundations and Frontier, edited by Earl E. Shelp (Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1985), which contains twenty essays on (1) theology, science, and bioethics; (2) foundations and frontiers in religious bioethics, and (3) religious reasoning about bioethics and medical practice. For the Vatican's position on these issues, see the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction on Respect for Human Life in Its Origin and on the Dignity of Procreation: Replies to Certain Questions of the Day (Boston, MA: St. Paul Editions, 1987).





Summaries of Recent Literature on Reproductive Technologies

  • John Black, "Frozen embryos, Ice-Age Ethics & Cold Comfort: A Case Study in the Ethics of Reproductive Medicine." Malaspina University College, January 1996. From the Institute for Practical Philosophy at Malaspina University-College. Full text available on-line.
  • Talk of the Nation: "63 Year Old Mom." Guests: Dr. Gladys White, Executive Director, National Advisory Board on Ethics in Reproduction; Karen Lehrman, Feminist Writer and Author, Lipstick Proviso (Anchor Books 1997), Former editor, New Republic magazine and The Washington Post. April 28, 1997.
  • CNN - Genetic cancer screening poses dilemma - Jan. 23, 1996