Multimedia Resources on Environmental Ethics
- Dr. Dale Jamieson
Henry R. Luce Professor in Human Dimensions of Global Change at Carleton College.
- J. Baird Callicott
University of North Texas
Internet Resources on Environmental Ethics
for Environmental Philosophy - University of North Texas. Best single starting point on the web for environmental ethics
- .The Center for Applied Ethics - Environmental
Ethics University of British Columbia
- Internet discussion groups devoted to environmental ethics
- Biosis, which promises
to offer discussion groups on various issues relating to biotechnology.
- Greenpeace (the
background is green, of course),
- The Sierra Club,
- The Audubon Society,
- The EnviroWeb, which
contains excellent resources, "a project of the EnviroLink Network, the
largest on-line environmental information service on the planet."
- The EcoNet Home
Page contains articles and postings from thousands of conferences and
newsgroups, environmental resources, issue information, and links to environmental
- The Environmental News Network
- The Natural Research
Defense Council Web and
- The National Center
for Biotechnology Education.
- The Association of Forest
Service Employees for Environmental Ethics (AFSEEE) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit
organization. Our mission is to forge a socially responsible value system
for the Forest Service based on a land ethic which ensures ecologically and
economically sustainable resource management.
- Forfeiture Endangers American
Rights (FEAR) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to reform of federal
and state asset forfeiture laws to restore due process and protect the property
rights of innocent people.
Resources from the Clearinghouse for Subject-Oriented Internet Resource
Guides at the University of Michigan.
- Conservation International.
Government and Legal Resources on the Environment
NPR's Talk of the Nation
Interstate Air Pollution. Date: October
15, 1999. Host: Ira Flatow. Guests:
Carol Browner, Administrator,United States
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC; Frank
O'Donnell, Executive Director, Clean Air Trust, Washington, DC; David
Flannery, Legal Counsel, Midwest Ozone Group, Charleston, West
Virginia; Paul Miller, Senior Scientist,
Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management, Boston, Massachusetts. Description:
Recently, New York State announced plans to sue Midwestern power plants in an
effort to curb the amount of air pollutants that are coming across state lines.
In this hour, we'll look at the problem of interstate air pollution, and some of
the ways states are trying to meet the standards imposed by the
Clean Air Act. (NPR Description)
Safety of Genetically Modified Crops.
Date: August 13, 1999. Host: Paul Raeburn.
Guests: David Cove,Professor,
Genetics, University of Leeds, England, Visiting Professor, Biology, Washington
University, St.Louis, Missouri; Margaret Mellon,
Director, Agriculture and Biotechnology Program Union of Concerned Scientists,
Washington, DC; Tony Cavalieri (Ca-val-YAIR-ee),
Vice President, Traits and Technology Development Pioneer Hi-Bred International
Inc., Des Moines, Iowa. Description: There
is mounting concern about the safety of genetically modified crops. Consumers in
Europe seem to be rejecting them out of hand and some food manufacturers in the
U.S. are banning genetically altered foods from their products. But do our fears
of "frankenfoods" have any basis in fact? Join Paul Raeburn and guests
to discuss the science and risks of biotechnology. (NPR
Genetically Modified Crops. Date:
May 21, 1999. Host: Ira Flatow. Guests: John
Professor, Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York; Jane
Staff Scientist Union of Concerned Scientists, Washington, DC; Calvin
Director, Genetic Resources Conservation Program, University of
California-Davis, Davis, California. Description: This week,
scientists announced that monarch butterfly caterpillars were harmed by eating
pollen from a corn plant that had been genetically modified. Join Ira Flatow for
a discussion about this research, and a look at the promises and pitfalls of
crops. (NPR Description)
Effective Environmental Choices. Date:
May 4, 1999. Host: Melinda
Warren Leon, Co-author, Effective
Environmental Choices: Practical Advice from the Union of Concerned Scientists;
Jonathan Adler, Senior Director of
Environmental Policy at the Competitive Enterprise Institute, Author, Environ-
mentalism at the Crossroads: Green Activism in America (1995). Description:
In the last 20 years, it's become evident that some human activity is harmful to
the earth. While the impact of industry on the environment is in many ways
obvious, individual choices that contribute to environmental degradation are not
always obvious. A healthier environment requires that consumers make informed
choices about what they buy and how they dispose of waste. But how do you decide
whether it's paper or plastic? Cloth or disposable diapers? Join guest host
Melinda Penkava and guests to find out how you can make better environmental
choices. (NPR Description)
Exxon Valdez Spill: 10 Years Later.
Date: March 23, 1999. Host: Ray Suarez. Guests:
John Devens, Executive Director, Prince William
Sound Regional Citizens Advisory Council, Former Mayor of Valdez, Alaska
(1984-1989); Jim Polson, Editor, Oil Spill
Intelligence Report (Arlington, MA), Former Senior Producer for Science &
Technology, Monitor Radio (Boston, MA). Michelle
Brown, Commissioner, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation,
Former Assistant Attorney General for Alaska (1978-90). Description:
Ten years ago, more than 11 million gallons of crude oil spilled from the
ruptured Exxon Valdez, off the coast of Alaska. The biggest oil spill disaster
in U.S. history caught everyone off-guard. The oil industry was slow to respond,
and the livelihood of an unsuspecting community was imperiled. Join Ray Suarez
and guests for a look back at the Exxon Valdez oil spill. (NPR
Education . Host: Melinda Penkava. Guests: Kevin Coyle, President, National Environmental Education and
Training Foundation; Michael Sanera, Co-author of Facts Not Fear: A Parents's Guide to
Teaching Children About the Environment (Regnery Publishing Inc, 1996), Director and
Research Fellow, Claremont Institute, Center for Environmental Education Research, Tucson,
AZ; John Palladino,
National Science Teachers Foundation Environmental
Liaison, President, Pocono Environmental Education Center. Description:
Many public schools now include environmental science classes as part of their core
curriculums. Though some environmentalists and teachers see environmental education as a
positive way to interest students in ecology, critics say the teachings are knee-deep in
environmental activism and misinformation. Join host Melinda Penkava on National Teacher
Day for a look at the controversy over environmental education and how to keep politics
from dictating the curriculum. (NPR Description)
A Survey of On-Line Articles on Environmental Ethics
excellent reviews of recent books in environmental, see the web page on Environmental Ethics Books at the Center
for Environmental Philosophy.
Ethical Legacy of Aldo Leopold. Lectures by Jane Lubchenco, Peter
List, J. Baird Callicott, Chris Anderson, Dale McCullough, Gary Snyder, Laura
Westra, Jim Boyle, Flo Leibowitz, Kurt Peters, and Estrella Leopold. An
excellent resources, presented exceptionally well by Bill Uzgalis at Oregon
R. L. Clark
Beckman, "The Relevance of
Heideggers Thinking to Environmental Ethics."
and Deep Ecology," Australiasian Journal of Philosophy,
Vol 71, No 4 (1993), pp. 463-475.
Critique of Deep Ecology," Journal of Applied Philosophy,
Vol 3, No 2 (1986), pp. 211-216.
Alvin Lim Cheng Hin, "Martin Bubers Philosophy of
Dialogue as a Foundation for Environmental Ethics." Honours Thesis,
National University of Singapore.
Value in Nature, The Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy,
Issue 3, Spring 1995. Article include:
A Bibliographical Survey of Philosophical Literature on Environmental Ethics
Biliographical essays are drawn
from Lawrence M. Hinman, Contemporary
In addition to the standard journals in ethics, see especially
- Environmental Ethics, which
has been a rich source of scholarship and theory on issues of environmental ethics; the tables of contents for current and all
past issues are available on-line. Also see the journal
- Between the Species, published
by the Schweitzer Center of the San Francisco Bay Institute/Congress of Cultures; the
- Newsletter of the International Society for Environmental Ethics, the most recent
issues of which are available on-line; and the
- Electronic Green Journal, which is published at the University of Idaho, is also
See the review articles by J. Baird Callicott, "Environmental Ethics," Encyclopedia
of Ethics, edited by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker (New York: Garland
Publishing, Inc., 1992), Vol. I, pp. 311-314, and Robert Elliot, "Environmental
Ethics," A Companion to Ethics, edited by Peter Singer (Oxford: Blackwell,
1991), pp. 284-293. Also see the articles in Environmental Philosophy. From Animal
Rights to Radical Ecology, discussed below.
For additional bibliography, see the on-line
bibliography maintained by the International Society for Environmental Ethics.
The Environmental Crisis: Opposing Viewpoints, edited by Neal Bernards (San
Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1991) contains chapters on pesticides, garbage, toxic waste, air
and water pollution, and environmental protection. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on
Controversial Environmental Issues, edited, selected, and with introductions by
Theodore D. Goldfarb, 5th ed. (Guilford, CT : Dushkin Pub. Group, 1993) also covers a wide
range of issues with a balanced selection of readings as does Donald VanDerVeer and
Christine Pierce, eds., People, Penguins, and Plastic Trees (Belmont: Wadsworth,
1986). The Environment in Question: Ethics and Global Issues, edited by David E.
Cooper and Joy A. Palmer (London: Routledge, 1992) contains a good balance of theoretical
and applied issues. Earthbound: New Introductory Essays in Environmental Ethics,
edited by Tom Regan (New York: Random House, 1984) in a very interesting collection of
original essays on such topics as pollution, energy, economics, ocean resources,
agriculture, rare species, future generations, and moral theory. Also see Donald Scherer
and Thomas Attig, eds., Ethics and the Environment (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:
Prentice-Hall, 1983). Environmental Philosophy. From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology,
edited by Michael E. Zimmerman et al. (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1993) is a
superb collection of essays, with introductions for individual sections done by
representatives of each tradition, including ecofeminism, deep ecology, and social
Responsibilities to Future Generations, edited by Ernest Partridge (Buffalo:
Prometheus Press, 1980), Obligations to Future Generations, edited by R. I Sikora
and Brian Barry (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1978), and Obligations to
Future Generations, edited by E. Partridge (Buffalo: Prometheus, 1981) all contain
articles about the issue of our responsibility to future generations for not destroying
the natural environment.
For a helpful on-line listing of anthologies in environmental ethics, see Center for
Environmental Philosophy's Selected Books
Richard Routley's "Is There a Need for a New, an Environmental Ethic?", in Proceedings
of the 15th World Congress of Philosophy, edited by Bulgarian Organizing Committee
(Sophia, Bulgaria: Sophia-Press, 1973), Vol. 1, pp. 205-10, was one of the first
statements of a need for a new environmental ethic.
Kenneth E. Goodpaster, "On Being Morally Considerable." Journal of
Philosophy Vol. 22 (1978), pp. 308-25, argues that it is the capacity to live (not
mere sentience) that gives an entity moral considerability; also see his "From Egoism
to Environmentalism," in Ethics and Problems of the 21st Century, edited by K.
E. Goodpaster and K. M. Sayre (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1979). The
Spring, 1995 issue of the Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy is devoted to
the topic of "Justifying Value in Nature." Click here to go to the
table of contents and full text of this journal issue.
On the issue of the relationship between human beings and nature, see Bryan G.
Norton, "Environmental Ethics and Weak Anthropocentrism." Environmental
Ethics Vol. 6 (1984), pp. 131-48; Tom Regan, "The Nature and Possibility of an
Environmental Ethic." Environmental Ethics, Vol. 3 (1981), pp. 19-34;
Peter Singer, "Not for Humans Only: The Place of Non-humans in Environmental
Issues," in Ethics and Problems of the 21st Century, edited by Kenneth E.
Goodpaster (Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1979); and Donald VanDeVeer,
"Interspecies Justice." Inquiry, Vol. 22 (1979), pp. 55-70.
J. Ronald Engel, "Ecology and Social Justice: The Search for a Public
Environmental Ethic," in Issues of Justice: Social Sources and Religious Meanings,
edited by Warren Copeland and Roger Hatch (Macon, Ga.: Mercer Press, 1988), pp.
243-266. For an excellent list of books on eco-theology comiled by John B. Cobb,
Jr., click here.
On the relationship between feminism and environmental issues, see Karen Warren,
"Feminism and Ecology: Making Connections," Environmental Ethics Vol. 9
(1987), pp. 3-20.
Aldo Leopold's A Sand County Almanac: With Essays on Conservation from Round River (New
York: Ballantine Books, 1970) is a classic of the environmental movement; J. Baird
Callicott's In Defense of the Land Ethic: Essays in Environmental Philosophy (Albany:
State University of New York Press, 1988) is a development of, and defense of, Leopold's
land ethic. In this same tradition is Rolston, III, Holmes, Environmental Ethics:
Duties to and Values in the Natural World (Philadelphia: Temple University Press,
1988) and Philosophy Gone Wild: Essays in Environ- mental Ethics (New York:
Prometheus Books, 1986).
Among the more important works in this area, see Robin Attfield, The Ethics of
Environmental Concern (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983); Hargrove, Eugene C.
Foundations of Environmental Ethics (Englewood Cliffs N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1989);
Passmore, John. Man's Responsibility for Nature: Ecological Problems and Western
Traditions. New York: Scribner's, 1974); W. F. Baxter, People or Penguins: The Case
for Optimal Pollution (New York: Columbia University Press, 1974) and Christopher
Manes, Radical Environmentalism and the Unmaking of Civilization (Boston: Little,
Brown, 1990); Mark Sagoff, The Economy of the Earth: Philosophy, Law, and the
Environment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); Paul W. Taylor, Respect
for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics (Princeton: Princeton University Press,
1986) defends a biocentric account of ethics; Lawrence E. Johnson, A Morally Deep
World. An Essay on Moral Significance and Environmental Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1991); and Richard Sylvan, A Critique of Deep Ecology (Canberra:
Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, 1985). Click here for a more detailed list of
systematic works in environmental ethics, as compiled at the Center for Environmental
Summaries of Recent Literature on Environmental Ethics
excellent reviews of recent books in environmental, see the web page on Environmental Ethics Books at the Center
for Environmental Philosophy.
Suggestions for Discussion Questions and Term Paper Topics
Global Warming Policy
- The United States holds the rights to vast mineral resources. What policies should
govern the sale of public lands for private use? Should restrictions be placed on the use
of those lands?
- Imagine that you are the research assistant to a United States official attending a
world conference on global warming. What policy recommendations would you propose that our
representative support? What are the best arguments in support of those policies? What
objections can be expended to them? What replies would you suggest?