Internet Resources Relating to Gender and Ethics
Commission Reports, Documents
Gender-Related Web Sites
Beijing '95: The United National Fourth World Conference on Women
- Cairo '94: The United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD),
September 5-13, 1994 in Cairo, Egypt
- The Glass Ceiling Report
- Papal Documents
NPR's Talk of the Nation
Women's Wasteland? (14.4
Host: Melinda Penkava. Cyberspace was once dominated by men, but
there's an increasing number of websites not only aimed at women, but
designed and created by women as well. Some observers have complained that
the new offerings-- much like offerings in television, cable, and
magazines-- are full of the same tired cliches about women as empty-headed
consumers. Is new media relying on old stereotypes?
February 10, 2000
The New (Old) Machismo (14.4
Host: Mike Shuster. Lately it seems more acceptable-- even
endearing-- for men to be insensitive slobs. Programs like 'The Man Show'
glorify beer-drinking, boorish frat-boy humor, while making no apologies for
objectifying women. Much of the humor is tongue in cheek, but is the irony
too subtle for most people? January 10,
The Changing American Family (14.4
Host: Brooke Gladstone. The American family is undergoing a
major transformation. People are getting married later-- if at all-- and
families with more than one child are becoming more and more rare.
Researchers say that by the turn of the century, more than half of the
nation's children will not be living with both parents. What will the future
family be? How will these changes affect children? December
Host: Melinda Penkava. Infidelity is no longer a private
matter... beyond political scandals, therapists and family counselors are
writing more about the issue, and new studies are researching what motivates
infidelity, and ways to repair the damage it inflicts on marriages and
families. November 4, 1999
Motherhood and Work(14.4
Host: Ray Suarez. Nearly everyone would agree that mothers have
a right to work if they wish... but SHOULD mothers work, or stay at home
with the children? It remains a contentious question, with advocates on both
sides quick to launch into moral arguments for and against. February
Harassment Two monumental
decisions involving workplace harassment were handed down by the Supreme
Court on Friday. Studies indicate that many working women have experienced
some form of sexual misconduct on the job. With complaints of harassment at
work on the rise, the consequences of the recent court rulings could have
important ramifications for employers and supervisors around the nation. The
Supreme Court rulings on sexual harassment, and what it means to you...on
the next Talk of the Nation....from NPR News. June
Harassment Law Guests:
Linda Holstein, Partner, Lockridge, Grindall, Nauen & Holstein, Head of
the Employment Law Group. The Paula Jones case and the Monica Lewinsky
scandal have directed national attention to the challenges of defining and
interpreting sexual harassment law.
March 25, 1998.
Fathers , James Levine, Director of the Fatherhood Project at the
Families and Work, Institute in New York City. June 12, 1997. Host: Melinda Penkava
Mothers , Host: Melinda Penkava. April 30, 1997.
Harassment in the Army . Host: Ray Suarez. February 11, 1997.
Harassment Guests: Joe Artebane, Partner, Riley and Artebane Lawfirm,
Washington, D.C. May 8, 1996.
Women in the
Military . Guests: Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, History
Professor, Emory University, Author, Feminism is Not the Story of My Life
(Doubleday, 1996); Captain Rosemary Mariner, Captain, US Navy, Professor
of Military Strategy, National War College. December 4, 1996.
Pornography . Guests: Wendy McElroy, Author, A Woman's Right to
Pornography (1995, St. Martins Press); Susie Bright, Editor, The Best American
Erotica (1995, Touchstone Books)
Anne Roiphe, author of Fruitful: A Real Mother in the Modern World,
and her daughter Katie Roiphe, author of The Morning After: Sex, Fear
and Feminism on Campus, join Talk of the Nation for a conversation about their
differing takes on feminism and how they've bridged the generation gap. October 16, 1996
A Bibliographical Survey of Philosophical Literature on Gender
Biliographical essays are drawn
from Lawrence M. Hinman, Contemporary
In addition to the standard journals in ethics discussed in the Appendix, there are
several excellent journals devoted to issues of feminism. Signs is one of the
oldest, and is a genuinely interdisciplinary journal devoted to issues relating to women; Hypatia
is a philosophy journal created by members of the Society of Women in Philosophy; also see
Feminist Studies and differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies.
Review Articles; Overviews
For an excellent overview of feminist ethics, see Alison M. Jaggar, "Feminist
Ethics," Encyclopedia of Ethics, edited by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B.
Becker (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1992), Vol. I, pp. 361-370; Jane Grimshaw,
"The Idea of a Female Ethic," A Companion to Ethics, edited by Peter
Singer (Oxford: Blackwell, 1991), pp. 491-499. For an excellent overview of various
positions, see Rosemarie Tong, Feminine and Feminist Ethics (Belmont: Wadsworth,
1993) and Feminist Frameworks, edited by Alison M Jaggar and Paula S. Rothenberg,
2nd edition (New York: McGraw Hill, 1984).
Anthologies, Articles and Books
There are a number of excellent anthologies on feminism and ethics, including
Eva Feder Kittay and Diana Meyer's Women and Moral Theory (Savage, MD: Rowman &
Littlefield, 1987); Feminism and Political Theory, edited by Cass R.
Sunstein (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990); Claudia Card's Feminist Ethics
(Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas Press, 1991), which contains an excellent
bibliography; Explorations in Feminist Ethics, edited by Eva Browning Cole and
Susan Coultrap-McQuin (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992), which also has an
excellent bibliography; Ethics: A Feminist Reader, edited by Elizabeth Frazer,
Jennifer Hornsby, and Sabina Lovibond (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992); Women and Values.
Readings in Recent Feminist Philosophy, Second Edition, edited by Marilyn Pearsall
(Belmont: Wadsworth, 1993). For a lively, representative selection of contemporary
articles on feminism, see Feminism: Opposing Viewpoints, edited by Carol Wekesser
(San Diego, CA : Greenhaven Press, 1995).
Rita C. Manning, Speaking from the Heart. A Feminist Perspective on Ethics
(Lantham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1992) is one of many excellent defenses of feminist
perspectives in ethics. For a critical look at some elements in contemporary feminism, see
Katie Roiphe, The Morning After. Sex, Fear, and Feminism (Boston: Little, Brown,
1993) and Christina Hoff Sommers, Who Stole Feminism? (New York: Simon &
Gender and Moral Voices
Carol Gilligan's In a Different Voice (Cambridge: Harvard University Press,
1982) has had a profound impact in a wide range of disciplines; her more recent work is to
be found in a collection of essays that she co-edited with Janie Victoria Ward and Jill
McLean Taylor, Mapping the Moral Domain (Cambridge: Center for the Study of Gender,
Education and Human Development, 1988) and in Meeting at the Crossroad, by Lyn
Mikel Brown and Carol Gilligan (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992). Nel Noddings's
Caring (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984) and, more recently, her
book Women and Evil (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989) have
also been influential in articulating a distinctive moral voice for women.
Several journal exchanges are also of particular relevance here, most of which have
appeared in Ethics: the Kohlberg-Flanagan exchange on "Virtue, Sex, and
Gender" Ethics, Vol. 92, No. 3 (April, 1982), pp. 499-532; Lawrence
Blum's "Gilligan and Kohlberg: Implications for Moral Theory" Ethics, Vol.
98, No. 3 (April, 1988), pp. 472-91; and the symposium on "Feminism and Political
Theory," Ethics, Vol. 99, No. 2 (January, 1989). Owen Flanagan's Varieties
of Moral Personality (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991) contains several
excellent chapters (esp. Chapters 9-11) on this issue. Blum's essay, along with his
previously unpublished "Gilligan's 'Two Voices' and the Moral Status of Group
Identity," are both to be found in his Moral Perception and Particularity (New
York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Also see the essays in Part III of Claudia Card's
anthology Feminist Ethics, cited above.
Pornography and Hate Speech
For a survey of the ethical issues surround pornography, as well as an excellent
bibliography, see Donald VanDeVeer, "Pornography," Encyclopedia of Ethics,
edited by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc.,
1992), Vol. II, pp. 991-993. See the now classic pieces in Take Back the Night,
edited by Laura Lederer (New York: William Morrow, 1980). For strong statements of
opposition to pornography, see Andrea Dworkin, Pornography: Men Possessing Women
(New York: Perigree Books, 1983), Catharine A. MacKinnon, Only Words (Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1993). For a representative selection of philosophical positions
on this issue, see Pornography and Censorship, edited by David Copp and Susan
Wendell (Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1983).
The issue of banning hate speech has received a lot of attention in the past decade.
Some of the most influential essays are gathered together in Mari J. Matsuda, et al.,
Words That Wound: Critical Race Theory, Assaultive Speech, and the First Amendment
(Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1993) and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., et al., Speaking
of Race, Speaking of Sex, Hate Speech, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties, with an
Introduction by Ira Glesser (New York: New York University Press, 1994); also see Gates'
"Let Them Talk: Why Civil Liberties Pose No Threat to Civil Rights," The New
Republic, Vol. 209, No. 12-13 (September 20, 1993), pp. 37 ff. Andrew Altman,
"Liberalism and Campus Hate Speech: A Philosophical Examination," Ethics,
Vol. 103, No. 2 (January, 1993), pp. 302-317. On the more general issue of sexist
language, see Sexist Language. A Modern Philosophical Analysis, edited by Mary
Vetterling-Braggin (n.p.: Littlefield, Adams and Co., 1981)
See the review article "Sexual Abuse and Harassment" by Naomi Scheman in Encyclopedia
of Ethics, edited by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker (New York: Garland
Publishing, Inc., 1992), Vol. II, pp. 1139-1141. Also see Catharine MacKinnon, Sexual
Harassment of Working Women (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979) for a view of
sexual harassment as sex discrimination. Also see the excellent anthology, Sexual
Harassment: Confrontations and Decisions, edited by Edmund Wall (Buffalo: Prometheus
For a general bibliography of affirmative action, see the references mentioned in the
bibliography for the chapter on race and ethnicity. For a perceptive analysis of the ways
in which certain practices result in sex discrimination, see Mary Anne Warren,
"Secondary Sexism and Quota Hiring," Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol. 6
(1977), pp. 240-261. In addition, see Justice, Gender, and Affirmative Action, by
Susan D. Clayton and Faye J. Crosby (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992).
Recent Literature on Gender
Mary Mahowald, "Reproductive
Genetics and Gender Justice." Full text available.
Berkshire Associates Inc. - Recent
Articles on Affirmative Action. Good selection of resources on affirmative
action and gender.
Marquita Sykes, "The
Origins of Affirmative Action." A History of Affirmative Action. Full
Yael Tamir, "Hands
Off Clitoridectomy: What our revulsion reveals about ourselves." The
Boston Review, 1996.
Suggestions for Discussion Questions and Term Paper Topics
Rights and Relativism
Same-Sex Educational Institutions
- Recently, several women have sought asylum in the United States while fleeing
the practice of genital mutliation in their home countries. The case
raises several interesting issues, one of which concerns cultural relativism.
Can we judge the moral worth of practices (such as genital mutiliation) that
occur in other cultures? How should we act when confronted with such practices?
For more information on this issue, see The
Global Action Against Female Genital Mutilation and The
Female Genital Mutilation Research Home Page.
- The Supreme Court has recently declared the Virginia Military
Institute's policy of admitting males only to be unconstitutional. Yet this raises
questions about whether state-supported same-sex education is ever permissible. For
example, plans are currently under way in New York to open a public school for girls only,
beginning with seventh graders. (See "Plan for Girls-Only School Raises Issues of
Bias," New York Times, July 16, 1996.) Studies have suggested that girls,
especially from poorer neighborhoods, do better in classrooms without boys, at least in
part because of social pressure not to appear smarter than the boys. (Also see Jeffrey
Rosen, "Single-Sex Schools and Double Standards," The New York Times,
July 3, 1996.) Do single-sex schools have any legitimate place in our society? What does
your answer to that question reveal about your views on the place of gender in the ideal