Race, Ethnicity and Multiculturalism
Multimedia Resources on Race, Ethnicity and Multiculturalism
Lawrence M. Hinman
Internet Resources on Race, Ethnicity and Human Rights
Supreme Court Decisions
Human Rights Resources
- University of Maryland. Excellent resources on a wide range of diversity issues,
including resources for race and ethnicity, gender, age, physical ability, and class.
the excellent selection of sources in Elizabeth Anderson's "Dialogue
on Diversity: Bibliography on Race, Gender, and Affirmative Action."
Luther King, Jr.
- A rich set of resources relating to Dr. King, including audio clips from
speeches. Maintained by the Seattle Times.
Black History Resources
Slavery Review of Edward Ball's book Slaves in the
Family. Ball rewrites his family legends in an effort to bring
black and white history together.
Family Business Excerpt from Slaves in the Family. "In
his will, Elias devoted considerable thought to Dolly, whom he called
his 'Molattoe Wench.'"
Excerpt from Slaves in the Family. "'They build the
chimney with clay. But oh Lord, if it rains, you have to keep a fire all
night so it don't fall.'"
President's Proclamation by Ralph Waldo Emerson (Novermber,
1862) "And the aim of the war on our part is indicated by the aim
of the President's Proclamation, namely, to break up the false combination
of Southern society, to destroy the piratic feature in it which makes
it our enemy only as it is the enemy of the human race, and so allow its
reconstruction on a just and healthful basis. Then new affinities will
act, the old repulsions will cease, and, the cause of war being removed,
Nature and trade may be trusted to establish a lasting peace."
Heart of the Race Problem by Quincy Ewing (March, 1909) "The
foundation of [the race problem], true or false, is the white man's conviction
that the Negro as a race, and as an individual, is his inferior.... The
problem itself ... is the white man's determination to make good this
conviction, coupled with constant anxiety lest, by some means, he should
fail to make it good."
Vesey by Thomas Wentworth Higginson (June, 1861) "Men in authority
came and sought by promises, threats, and even tortures, to ascertain
the names of other accomplices. His companion, wearied out with pain and
suffering, and stimulated by the hope of saving his own life, at last
began to yield. Peter [Poyas] raised himself, leaned upon his elbow, looked
at the poor fellow, saying quietly, 'Die like a man,' and instantly lay
down again. It was enough; not another word was extorted."
Affirmative Action Resources
NPR's "Talk of the Nation"
Racial Screening (14.4
Racial profiling can describe a situation where
cops use skin color as a reason to frisk, or cabs passing by black customers,
or why whites feel for their wallets when in an elevator with minorities.
As a police policy, it's been attacked by Amnesty International. As an instinct,
it can only be cured by long and brutally honest conversations. Join Brooke
Gladstone and guests for a look at racial profiling as government policy
and personal inclination. November
Youth & Race (14.4
Guests: Michael Meyers Executive Director of New
York Civil Rights Coalition, Beverley Daniel Tatum, Dean of Mount Holyoke
College, South Hadley, MA, Professor of Psychology and Education, Mount
Holyoke College, Author, Why Are All The Black Kids Sitting Together
In The Cafeteria? And Other Conver- sations About Race (Basic Books,
97) The young Americans of today make up the most racially diverse
generation in our nation's history. Polls indicate that young people tend
to have more relaxed attitudes to race relations, but other indicators suggest
that racial tensions on high school and college campuses are still a problem.
Join Melinda Penkava and guests to discuss young Americans' attitudes toward
race. October 11, 1999.
Native American Land Claims (14.4
Guests: SUZANNE SHOWN HARJO
President and Executive Director of the Morningstar Institute, a national,
non-profit, Indian rights organization. Thirty years ago, a group
of Native American activists occupied Alcatraz island in San Francisco Bay,
drawing national attention to the struggle of Native Americans across the
country. Today, the 'Red Power' movement has faded from the minds of most
Americans, but many Native Americans still feel their treaty-secured rights
and sovereignty are unfulfilled. Join Melinda Penkava and guests on Columbus
Day for a look at the state of Native American lands at the end of the twentieth
century. October 11, 1999.
White Male Discontent (14.4
Guests: SUSAN FALUDI Pulitzer Prize and National
Book Critics Circle award winner Contributing Editor for Newsweek Author,
Stiffed: the Betrayal of the American Man (William Morrow and Company,
1999) ELWOOD REID Author, What Salmon Know (Doubleday,
1999) Writes for GQ Magazine on men's issues. There's been growing
talk about 'white male discontent' in America, and surprisingly a prominent
feminist thinks these men DO have something to gripe about. In her new book
Stiffed, Pulitzer-Prize winning author Susan Faludi examines the
social and cultural influences underlying men's anger and alienation and
what both men and women are doing to address these problems. Susan Faludi
and guests join Ray Suarez for a discussion of how men today are searching
for a new, and more meaningful, definition of masculinity. September
Lone Wolf Hate Crimes (14.4
A number of recent hate crimes have
been committed by so-called 'lone wolf' types. While no organized hate groups
can be connected to these attacks, the 'lone wolf' strategy has long been
advocated by some white supremacist groups. Can these groups be held responsible
for attacks like last week's shooting at a Jewish center? Join Ray Suarez
and guests for a look at what's been called the 'leaderless resistance.'
August 18, 1999.
St. Louis Desegregation (14.4
This past March, a 27-year-old desegregation
lawsuit against St. Louis public schools was finally settled. In 1972, Minnie
Liddell and other black parents filed suit against the St. Louis School
Board to allow their children to go to a local school that was predominantly
white. In the intervening years, a court-ordered desegregation plan, involving
a voluntary city-county busing program, was put in place. The settlement
reached in March would continue the transfer program for the next three
years, but its status is uncertain after then. Ray Suarez takes "Talk
of the Nation" on the road to St. Louis to look at this landmark settlement
agreement and how it will affect the future of St. Louis's public schools.
May 27, 1999.
Deadly Force and Race (14.4
Guests: Bob Stewart Executive Director
of the National Association of Black Law Enforcement Executives (NOBLE),
Alexandria, VA Former Chief of Police, Ormond Beach, FL Retired in 1991
as captain after 22 years of service in the Washington, DC Metropolitan
Police Dept. William Geller Director of Geller & Associates in Wilmette,
IL (offers technical assistance, education & research to police departments
and governments on humane policing) Author, Police Violence: Understanding
& Controlling Police Abuse of the Force [Yale University Press,
1996] Amadou Diallo, an immigrant from West Africa, was killed in
the Bronx by four police officers in a barrage of forty-one shots early
this month. He was unarmed and had no criminal record. Some civil rights
groups have asserted that this incident is symptomatic of a larger problem
-- police using deadly force disproportionately against minorities. How
can police departments win the trust of minority communities? Join Ray Suarez
and guests for a look inside police culture and a discussion of ways training
programs can help police departments avoid tragedies like Diallo's death...on
the next "Talk of the Nation" from NPR News. February
Archbishop Desmond Tutu (14.4
Guests: Desmond Tutu, Former Archbishop
of the Anglican Church of South Africa; Robert W. Woodruff, Visiting Professor
of Theology, Emory University, Chair, South Africa's Truth & Reconciliation
Commission\rArchbishop Desmond Tutu is reknowned for his campaign against
apartheid in South Africa. In 1996, he was appointed chair of the Truth and
Reconciliation Commission (TRC). In an effort to unite South Africans, this
unique Commission aimed at getting to the truth of apartheid crimes against
humanity. The TRC's final report, released in October, created intense emotions
on all sides. It held both the apartheid government and freedom fighters accountable
for various human rights violations. Host Ray Suarez talks with Bishop Tutu
about his work on the TRC, the report, and what other countries might learn
from the process. November 23, 1998.
of the Military Guests: William
Leftwich III Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Equal Opportunity;
Charles Moskos Professor of Sociology at Northwestern University Military
Sociologist and Architect of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy Co-author,
All That We Can Be: Black Leadership & Racial Integration The Army Way
[NY Basic Books, 1997] Charity Adams Earley Highest Ranking African-American
Servicewoman in WWII Author, One Woman's Army: A Black Officer Remembers
the WAC [Texas A&M University Press, 1989] \rFifty years ago, President
Truman signed an executive order abolishing racial segregation in the U.S.
military. African Americans have fought in all conflicts dating back to
colonial times. But until 1948, blacks and whites were divided into separate
units. Today, the military is one of the most racially integrated institutions
in the country. Join Ray Suarez and guests to mark the 50th anniversary
of military integration and look at the challenges the military still faces.
July 27, 1998
Ray Suarez. What does it mean to be white? How does a person's
"whiteness" affect their political and social consciousness? How
do white people perceive themselves in the racial spectrum? These are all
questions addressed in the new academic field known as Whiteness Studies.
Scholars of the discipline believe that formal analysis and understanding
of "whiteness" will help bring important perspective to America's
conversation on race. July 14, 1998.
Halberstam / Civil Rights Movement Guests:
David Halberstam Author, The Children [Random
House, 1998] Author of nine bestsellers including The Best and the Brightest,
The Amateurs [William Morrow, 1985] and Summer of '49 [William Morrow, 1989],
In 1960, David Halberstam was a young reporter in Tennessee assigned to
cover Nashville's first sit-ins. In his new book "The Children,"
Halberstam returns to the first big story he covered for a newspaper - the
early days of the Civil Rights Movement. The book focuses on the young African
Americans students who met in Nashville and went on to become leaders in
the movement. David Halberstam joins Ray Suarez along with some of "the
children" he profiles to discuss the civil rights movement and how
their experiences transformed their lives and American history. April
Guinier Guests: Lani Guinier
Professor of Law, University of Pennsylvania Law
School, Philadelphia, PA Author, Lift Every Voice: Turning A Civil Rights
Setback Into A New Vision of Social Justice [Simon and Schuster, 1998] \r
In 1993 President Clinton abandoned his support of Lani Guinier as his choice
for Assistant Attorney General (AAG) for Civil Rights, concurring with her
critics that some of her views were anti-democratic. Now Guinier has written
a memoir about her controversial AAG nomination and her new vision of the
civil rights movement. Guinier joins Ray Suarez to discuss her experience
with the Clinton White House and her work as a civil rights activist.
March 31, 1998
- Read Andrew Sullivan's article in the New York Times Magazine
on hate crimes, "What's
So Bad about Hate?" and then listen to the Talk
of the Nation interview with him.
Crimes. Noah Adams talks with Brian Levin, director of the
Center on Hate and Extremism at Richard Stockton College of New Jersey,
about hate crime legislation. Levin says hate crime law acts as a deterrent
because hate crime perpetrators are punished more severely in states where
such laws exist. Wyoming has no hate crime laws (October 13,1998).
Hate Crimes. Host: Ray Suarez. Guests: Clarence
Anthony, Mayor of South Bay, Florida, President of the National League
of Cities; Dennis W. Archer, Mayor of Detroit, Michigan, Second Vice President,
National League of Cities; Tine Podlodowski, Seattle City Council At Large
Member, Co-Chair, International Network of Lesbian and Gay Officials,
Chair, Seattle City Council's Public Safety, Health and Technology Committee.
The murder of James Byrd in Jasper, Texas was horrific, but there have
been a spate of gruesome hate crimes in America recently. The pattern
of violence has civic officials scrambling for answers. Some states have
hate crime prevention laws, but beyond the law, many feel a change of
attitude is necessary. The mayors of some cities are proposing a community
approach to fight bigotry and hate.
Hate. October 21, 1997 -- The Anti-Defamation League
released a report today on what it calls the dark side the Internet. It
says the World Wide Web is a powerful new tool for groups that want to
spread messages of hate and extremism. NPR's Kathleen Schalch reports
the study says the Internet offers racists, anti-Semites, and anti-government
extremists, another way to recruit new members and spread misinformation
- particularly to young people.
- Race Relations/President's Race Speech. June 12, 1997.
One. Guests: Jim Sleeper, Author of Liberal
Racism (Viking, 1997); Emma Coleman Jordan,
Co-Author of Race, Gender, and Power in America (Oxford
Two. Guests: Jim Sleeper, Author of Liberal Racism (Viking,
1997); Emma Coleman Jordan, Co-Author of Race, Gender,
and Power in America (Oxford University Press);
Leon Wynter, Columnist, The Wall Street Journal, Commentator,
NPR's All Things Considered.
Apology. May 15, 1997.
- Guests: Vanessa Gamble, Chair, Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee,
Physician and Historian of Medicine, Director, Center for Study of
Race and Ethnicity in Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Stephen
Thomas, Director and Associate Professor of Community Health, Institute
for Minority Health Research, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory
University Host: Melinda Penkav
Categories. Host: Ray Suarez. April 8, 1997
of Elijah Muhammad. Guest: Claude Andrew Clegg III, Author
of An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad, Professor
of History, North Carolina A&T State University. Host: Ray Suarez.
March 17, 1997.
Du Bois. Guests: Louis Massiah, Producer/Director,
"W.E.B. Du Bois: A Biography in Four Voices," to be aired February
7 (9pm EST), on PBS, Producer/Director of the award-winning series, "Eyes
on the Prize II;" Earle Lewis, Professor of History,
and Professor of Afro-American and African Studies, University of Michigan
at Ann Arbor, Senior Associate Dean, University of Michigan Graduate School;
Harold Cruse, Professor Emeritus of History and African
American Studies, University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. February 6, 1997.
Relations On Campus. Guests: Elise Bryant,
Founding member of Common Ground Theater Troupe, Ann Arbor, MI, Playwright,
actress, director and singer, has spent 22 years at the University of
Michigan; Jamie Hart, Gradaute Student in History Department,
University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, Diversity Training Coordinator for
Office of New Student Programs, University of Michigan at Ann Arbor; Thomas
Almaguer, Associate Professor of Sociology and American Culture,
University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, Author of Racial Faultlines:
Historical Origins of WhiteSupremacy in California (University of
California Press, 1994). February 6, 1997.
Guests: Jack White, National Correspondent, Time
Magazine in Washington,DC; Dr. Richard Wright, Professor
of Linguistics, School of Communications, Howard University, Author of
African American Oratory, The Encyclopedia of African American History
and Culture. Published by the Institute for Culture Studies at Columbia
University. January 21, 1997.
Action In the Army. Guests: Charles Moskos,
Professor of Sociology, Northwestern University, Author of All That
We Can Be: Black Leadership and Racial Integration The Army Way Basic
Books, 1996; General Donald Scott, Deputy Librarian of
Congress, Retired Brigadier General, U.S Army. December 10, 1996.
Adoption. Guests: Dr. Ruby Gourdine, Assistant Professor,
School of Social Work, Howard University; Gloria Hochman, Director of
Communications and Marketing National Adoption Center, Philadelphia, PA.
December 5, 1996.
Identity. Lisa Funderburg, Author of Black, White, Other:
Biracial Americans Talk About Race and Identity (William Morrow,
1994). November 14, 1995.
Gates and Cornel West. Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Professor
of Humanities, Harvard University, Chairman, Harvard University African-American
Studies, Co-Author of The Future of the Race (Knopf, 1996); Cornel
West, Professor of African-American Studies, Harvard University. April
4, 1996 .
Guests: Mary Lefkowitz, Andrew W. Mellon Professor in
the Humanities at Wellesley College, Author of Not Out of Africa:
How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth As History (Basic,
1996); Maulana Karenga, Professor and Chair, Department
of Black Studies, California State University. July 9, 1996
Kids. Guests: Barbara Mathias and Mary Ann French, co-authors
of 40 Ways to Raise a Nonracist Child. July 9, 1996
Hugh LaFollette's "Ideas
- Interview with Walter Feinberg, Educational Policy Studies, University
of Illinois. In
Favor of Affirmative Action, Oct 31, 1996.
- Interview with Charles Mills, Philosophy Department, University
of Illinois, Chicago. The
Continuing Importance of Race, Oct 17, 1996.
- Interview with Frank Wu, School of Law, Howard University. Neither
Black nor White: Asian Americans and Race, Nov 7, 1996.
York Times articles on Ebonics
NPR's Talk of the Nation. Guests: Jack
White, National Correspondent, Time Magazine in Washington,DC;
Dr. Richard Wright, Professor of Linguistics, School
of Communications, Howard University, Author of African American Oratory,
The Encyclopedia of African American History and Culture. Published
by the Institute for Culture Studies at Columbia University. January 21,
On-Line Literature on Race and Ethnicity
Heritability Misleads about Race," The Boston Review,
XX, no 6, January, 1996, p. 30-35.
- Eugene F. Rivers, 3d, "Beyond
the Nationalism of Fools: Toward An Agenda for Black Intellectuals,"
The Boston Review, 1996. Replies by Michael Berube, Tony
Martin, Robin D. G. Kelley, Martin Kilson, Glenn C. Loury, Bruce Nichols,
Lisa Y. Sullivan, Karen Lattea, Willard R. Johnson, Mark Tushnet, Bob Hulteen.
- Eugene Rivers, "The
Responsibility of Intellectuals in the Age of Crack," The Boston
with Regina Austin, Selwyn Cudjoe,
bell hooks, Randall Kennedy, and Eugene
Rivers, moderated by Margaret Burnham
with Margaret Burnham, former Associate Justice at
Boston Municipal Court and lecturer in Political Science at M.I.T; Henry
Louis Gates, Jr., W.E.B DuBois Professor of the Humanities
and Director of the W.E.B. DuBois Institute at Harvard University; bell
hooks, Visiting Professor in Women's Studies at City College of New
York; Glenn Loury, Professor of Economics at Boston
University; and Cornel West, Professor of Religion
and Director of the Afro-American Studies Program at Princeton University.
The discussion was moderated by Anthony Appiah, Professor
of African-American Studies at Harvard and a member of the editorial
board of the Boston Review.
- Glenn C. Loury, "The
Poverty of Reason"
- Wendy Brown, "The
Power of Rights, A Review of The Alchemy of Race and Rights: Diary
of a Law Professor, by Patricia J. Williams." The
Racism, or How the Pot Got to Call the Kettle Black," (Atlantic
In America "whites once set themselves apart from blacks and
claimed privileges for themselves while denying them to others,"
the author writes. "Now, on the basis of race, blacks are claiming
special status and reserving for themselves privileges they deny to
others. Isn't one as bad as the other? The answer is no." A distinguished
professor confronts the objections to affirmative action and offers
a spirited rebuttal.
- Juan Williams, "A
Question of Fairness," (Atlantic Monthly, 1987).
This is an interesting portrait of Clarence Thomas before he was nominated
to the Supreme Court. "Clarence Thomas, a black, and the chairman
of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, does not believe in
integration, affirmative action, or the possibility of a colorblind
society. His job, he believes, is to protect individuals, not groups."
- McGeorge Bundy, "The
Issue Before the Court: Who Gets Ahead in America?" (Atlantic
M. Steele, "Race
and the Schooling of Black Americans," (Atlantic Monthly,
"At every educational level something depresses black achievement,
writes the author, a well-known social scientist. That something, he
believes, goes beyond poverty, social isolation, and poor preparation:
it is stigma."
v. Board of Education of Topeka: 40 Years Later." Woodstock
Report, June 1993, no. 34, pp. 3-10.
On April 22, 1993, a Woodstock forum addressed the progress of
African-American education since Brown v. Board of Education
of Topeka, the 1954 landmark decision of the Supreme Court
which called for racial integration of public schools. Panelists
were Samuel Harvey, Jr., vice president for urban affairs at Georgetown
University; Dr. Floretta Dukes McKenzie, former Superintendent of
Schools in the District of Columbia; and Roger Wilkins, Clarence
J. Robinson Professor of History and American Culture at George
Mason University. Moderator of the forum was Jim Vance, an award-winning
journalist and anchor for News 4, WRC-TV in Washington, D.C.
History Archives, a subsection of the World History Archives, contains
a number of articles on this racism, including:
Pioneer Fund as promulgators of fascism." Re. a New York
Times article of 11 December, 1977.
David Lethbridge, "Review
of Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve"
Joe Sims, "Flattening
"The Bell Curve"" (1 April, 1995).
Pioneer Fund, Wickliffe P. Draper and "this moment in history"
(12 April, 1995).
Roots of the I.Q. Debate: Eugenics and Social Control.
Phil Shannon, Review
of Steven Fraser (ed), The Bell Curve Wars: Race, Intelligence and
the Future of America (Basic Books, 1995). 20 October, 1995.
Michael Swanson, The
Bell Curve and Eugenics (20 October, 1995).
A Bibliographical Survey of Philosophical Literature on Race, Ethnicity, and Multiculturalism
Biliographical essays are drawn
from Lawrence M. Hinman, Contemporary
Bernard R. Boxill's "Racism and Related Issues," Encyclopedia
of Ethics, edited by Lawrence and Charlotte Becker (New York: Garland,
1992), Vol. II, pp. 1056-59 provides an excellent overview of work on
race and related issues.
There is an extensive and often powerful literature dealing with
the prevalence of racism in our society. Derrick Bell's Faces
At The Bottom Of The Well: The Permanence Of Racism (New York: Basic
Books, 1992) provides a penetrating look at the pervasiveness of racism
in the United States today. Patricia J. Williams's The Alchemy of
Race and Rights (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991) is part
autobiography, part feminist legal philosophy, and part cultural critique.
Cornel West's Race Matters (Boston: Beacon Press, 1993) and his
Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times (Monroe, Maine: Common
Courage Press, 1993) are both well-argued analyses by one of the foremost
contemporary African-American thinkers. Shelby Steele's The Content
of Our Character: A New Vision of Race in America (New York: Harper
Collins, 1990) offers a much more conservative interpretation of these
phenomena. Stephen L. Carter's Reflections of an Affirmative Action
Baby (New York: Basic Books, 1991) stresses the ambiguity of affirmative
action for African- Americans. Lure and Loathing: Essays on Race,
Identity, and the Ambivalence of Assimilation, edited by Gerald
Early (New York: Penguin Press, 1993) contains a number of insightful
autobiographical essays on the ambivalence toward assimilation experienced
by many contemporary African-Americans. Naomi Zack's Race and Mixed
Race (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993) offers a perceptive
analysis of many of the issues surrounding mixed race in our society.
Several excellent anthologies contain shorter selections on
these issues. See, especially, Racism in America: Opposing Viewpoints,
edited by William Dudley (San Diego, CA.: Greenhaven Press, 1991), which
contains an excellent selection of largely popular pro-and-con pieces
on a number of topic related to racism; Taking Sides: Race and Ethnicity,
edited by Richard C. Monk (Guilford, CN: Dushkin Publishing Group,.
1994), which treats a wide range of issues relating to ethnicity as
well as race; Race, Class, and Gender in the United States, Third
Edition, edited by Paula S. Rothenberg (New York: St. Martin's Press,
1995), which is a gold mine of eloquent selections; Bigotry, Prejudice,
and Hatred: Definitions, Causes, and Solutions, edited by Robert
M. Baird and Stuart E. Rosenbaum (Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1993),
which contains an number of excellent philosophical selections; and
Anatomy of Racism, edited by David Theo Goldberg (Minneapolis: University
of Minnesota Press, 1990), which contains pieces by Appiah, Outlaw,
Fanon, Barthes, Kristeva, Said, Goldberg, and Gates. The transcript
of a two-day conference on "Race and Racism" is printed in
Salmagundi, Nos. 104-105 (Fall, 1994-Winter, 1995), pp. 3-155;
this consists of a round-table discussion including Orlando Patterson,
Christopher Lasch, Dinesh D'Souza, Anthony Appiah, Jean Elshtain, David
Rieff, Michelle Moody-Adams, Norman Birnbaum, and Gerald Early. Also
see Women of Color in U.S. Society, edited by Maxine Baca Zinn
and Bonnie Thornton Dill (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994),
a collection of 16 essays, largely from social scientific standpoints
Philosophical Approaches to Racism
Among the specifically philosophical approaches to racism and
related issues, see the issue of Philosophia, Vol. 8, No. 2-3
(November, 1978) that contains several articles on racism, including
Marcus George Singer, "Some Thoughts on Race and Racism,"
pp. 153-83; Kurt Baier, "Merit and Race," pp. 121-51; and
Peter Singer, "Is Racial Discrimination Arbitrary?", pp. 185-203;
also see the double issue of Philosophical Forum, Vol. 9, Nos.
2-3 (1977-78), entitled "Philosophy and the Black Experience"
and the triple issue, "African-American Perspectives and Philosophical
Traditions," Vol. XXIV, Nos. 1-3 (Fall-Spring,1992-93). See Kwama
Anthony Appiah, "Illusions of Race," In My Father's House:
Africa in the Philosophy of Culture (New York: Oxford University
Press, 1992), pp.28-46, for a discussion of the slipperiness of the
concept of race.
Racism and Sexism
On the relationship between racism and sexism, see Richard A.
Wasserstrom, "On Racism and Sexism," in Today's Moral Problems,
Third Edition, edited by Richard A. Wasserstorm (New York: Macmillan,
1985), pp. 1-28; and Laurence Thomas, "Sexism and Racism: Some
Conceptual Differences," Ethics, Vol. 90 (January, 1980),
Claims of racially-based differences in intelligence have been
frequent over the ages. In recent times, see Arthur Jenson, "How
Much Can we Boost I.Q. and Scholastic Achievement?" Harvard
Educational Review, Vol. 39, No. 1 (1969), pp. 1-123; William Schockley,
"Dysgenecs, Geniticity, and Raciology," Phi Delta Kappan
(January,1972), pp. 297-307; and, most recently, Charles Murray and
Richard Herrnstein, The Bell Curve (New York: Free Press, 1994).
Equally common have been strong critiques of such connections, including
Steven Jay Gould, Ever Since Darwin (New York: W. W. Norton,
1977) and Ashley Montagu, Man's Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy
of Race, Fourth Edition (Cleveland: World, 1964).
Some of the initial articles on multiculturalism are to be found in
Debating P.C., edited by Paul Berman (New York: Laurel, 1992)
and Culture Wars: Opposing Viewpoints, edited by Fred Whitehead
(San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1994). For perceptive comments on these
issues, see Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Loose Cannons: Notes on the Culture
Wars (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993). Among the critics
of multiculturalism are, Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Disuniting
of America (New York: W. W. Norton, 1992), William J. Bennett, The
De-Valuing of America (New York: Summit Books, 1992), Dinesh D'Souza,
Illiberal Education: The Politics of Race and Sex on Campus (New
York: Vintage, 1992), and Robert Hughes, Culture of Complaint
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1993).
For an excellent discussion of the philosophical and political dimensions
of multiculturalism, see Amy Gutmann, "The Challenge of Multiculturalism
in Political Ethics," Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol.
22, No. 3 (1993), pp. 171-206 and the essays in Defending Diversity:
Contemporary Philosophical Perspectives on Pluralism and Multiculturalism,
ed. Lawrence Foster and Patricia Herzog (Amherst, MA: University of
Massachusetts Press, 1994. For a philosophically sophisticated account
of the question of identity within this context, see Charles Taylor,
Multiculturalism and "The Politics of Recognition,"
with commentary by Amy Gutman, Steven C. Rockefeller, Michael Walzer,
and Susan Wolf (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992). On the
issue of identity, also see the papers by Anthony Appiah and others
at the APA Symposium on Gender, Race, and Ethnicity, Journal of Philosophy,
Vol. 87, No. 10 (October, 1990), pp. 493-99. Also see the articles on
multiculturalism and philosophy that appeared in Teaching Philosophy,
Vol. 14, No. 2 (June, 1991).
Banning Hate Speech
The issue of banning hate speech has received a lot of attention
in the past decade. Some of the most influential essays are gathered
together in Mari J. Matsuda, et al., Words That Wound: Critical
Race Theory, Assaultive Speech, and the First Amendment (Boulder,
Colorado: Westview Press, 1993) and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., et al.,
Speaking of Race, Speaking of Sex, Hate Speech, Civil Rights, and
Civil Liberties, with an Introduction by Ira Glesser (New York:
New York University Press, 1994); also see Gates' "Let Them Talk:
Why Civil Liberties Pose No Threat to Civil Rights," The New
Republic, Vol. 209, No. 12-13 (September 20, 1993), pp. 37 ff. Andrew
Altman, "Liberalism and Campus Hate Speech: A Philosophical Examination,"
Ethics, Vol. 103, No. 2 (January, 1993), pp. 302-317. Also see,
Catharine A. MacKinnon, Only Words (Cambridge: Harvard University
There are a number of excellent anthologies dealing with the
issue of affirmative action. These include Social Justice and Preferential
Treatment, edited by William T. Blackstone and Robert Heslep (Athens:
University of Georgia Press, 1976), Equality and Preferential Treatment,
edited by Marshall Cohen, Thomas Nagel, and Thomas Scanlon (Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1977); Affirmative Action and the University:
A Philosophical Inquiry, edited by Steven M Cahn (Philadelphia:
Temple University Press, 1993); Reverse Discrimination, edited
by Barry R. Gross (Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1977); Equal Opportunity,
edited by Norman E. Bowie (Boulder: Westview Press, 1988); Discrimination,
Affirmative Action, and Equal Opportunity: An Economic and Social Perspective,
co-edited by W. E. Block and M. A. Walker. (Vancouver, B.C., Canada:
Fraser Institute, 1981), which includes contributions by Gary Becker,
Thomas Sowell, and Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.; Racial Preference and Racial
Justice: The New Affirmative Action Controversy, edited by Russell
Nieli (Washington, D.C.: Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1991); and,
most recently, Debating Affirmative Action: Race, Gender, Ethnicity,
and the Politics of Inclusion, edited and with an introduction by
Nicolaus Mills (New York: Delta, 1994).
p>Among books arguing one side of this issues, see especially
Bernard R. Boxill, Blacks and Social Justice (Totowa, N.J.: Rowman
& Allanheld, 1984); Gertrude Ezorsky, Racism and Justice: The
Case for Affirmative Action (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991);
The Reverse Discrimination Controversy: A Moral and Legal Analysis,
by Robert K. Fullinwider (Totowa, N.J. : Rowman and Littlefield, 1980);
Affirmative Discrimination: Ethnic Inequality and Public Policy,
by Nathan Glazer New York: Basic Books, 1975); Out of Order: Affirmative
Action and the Crisis of Doctrinaire Liberalism, by Nicholas Capaldi
(Buffalo, N.Y. : Prometheus Books, 1985); Invisible Victims: White
Males and The Crisis of Affirmative Action, by Frederick R. Lynch
(New York: Greenwood Press, 1989); Justice and Reverse Discrimination,
by Alan H. Goldman (Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1979);
Barry R. Gross, Discrimination in Reverse: Is Turnabout Fair Play?
(New York: New York University Press, 1978); Michael Rosenfeld, Affirmative
Action and Justice: A Philosophical and Constitutional Inquiry (New
Haven: Yale University Press, 1991); and Iris Marion Young, Justice
and the Politics of Difference (Princeton: Princeton University
Press, 1990), especially the chapter on "Affirmative Action and
the Myth of Merit," pp. 192-225.
Among the many important philosophical articles on this set
of topics, see W. Blackstone, "Reverse Discrimination and Compensatory
Justice," Social Theory and Practice, Vol. 3 (1975), pp.
258-271; Bernard R. Boxill's "The Morality of Reparations,"
Social Theory and Practice, Vol. 2 (1972), pp. 113-24 and "The
Morality of Preferential Hiring," Philosophy and Public Affairs,
Vol. 7 (1978). Pp. 246-268; H. McGary, Jr., "Justice and Reparations,"
Philosophical Forum, Vol. 9 (1977-78). Pp. 250-63; Thomas Nagel,
"Equal Treatment and Compensatory Discrimination," Philosophy
and Public Affairs, Vol. 2 (1973), pp. 348-63; and Thomas E. Hill,
Jr., "The Message of Affirmative Action" Social Philosophy
and Policy, Vol. 8 (Spring, 1991), pp. 108-129.
Suggestions for Discussion Questions and Term Paper Topics
A Common Language?
- There is no official language in the United States. Should English
be required as the offical language? This raises a number of interesting
moral and political questions. What role does language play in ethnic
identity? To what extent should the state permit ethnic identity?
encourage it? To what extent is a common language necessary for political
community? Click here for the National Education Association press
to English Only Initiatives Before Congress (1 November, 1995).
Are There Racial Differences? If so, what is their significance?
- Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray's The Bell Curve
presented a controversial case for the existence of significant differences
in intelligence among the races. Are there any such differences? If
such differences exist (e.g., that Asian-American students overall
are smarter than Caucasian students), what follows from those differences?
A Separate Language?
- Should Ebonics be taught as a separate language in our public schools?
See the New
York Times articles on this topic.