& Reproductive Technologies
Last updated: July 10, 2011
Multimedia Resources on Bioethics, Cloning, & Reproductive Technologies
Lawrence M. Hinman
University of San Diego Spring Semester, 2001
Surveys on the Ethics of Reproductive Technologies
Internet Resources on Cloning, Genetics, and Reproductive Technologies
Society for Bioethics and Humanities Home Page. One of the premier bioethics organizations. Of special note are:
Links. Links page at Dartmouth Ethics Institute
Ethics Resources on WWW. List by Chris MacDonald at the University of British
Columbia Center for Applied Ethics
and Ethics. Maintained by Bryn Williams-Jones, University of British
Columbia Center for Applied Ethics
Bioethics. Emory University.
Ethics Centers, etc.
of Pennsylvania - Center for Bioethics. The Center for Bioethics is an interdisciplinary,
interprofessional unit of the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center. Excellent
- Chicago/Penn Philosophy & Genetics
Web Site. The project is open to anyone. Ten researchers in the field serve
as discussants, posting remarks, papers, and comments.
Legal & Social Implications of Biotechnology AT NCGR. Includes Kennedy
Institute Scope Notes and an extensive Bibliography of Bioethics
- Kennedy Institute of Ethics at Georgetown University
- National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature - includes a database called ETHXWeb, with over 250,000 ethics references
- NIREHG, The National Information Resource on Ethics & Human Genetics
Bioethics HomePage. University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Excellent
bibliographies, links, newsletter
Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity.
UB Center for Clinical Ethics and Humanities in Health Care. SUNY at Buffalo.
Recently Updated. Includes Bioethics Bulletin, resources on teaching bioethics,
texts in bioethics and medical humanities.
for Professional Ethics at the University of Central Lancashire; includes
resources on genetics and bioethics.
- Women's Bioethics Blog: "...news and commentary on the implications of bioethical issues for women around the world"
- Institute for Ethics and
Emerging Technologies. An international,not-for- profit, future studies group nucleating academics, writers and technologists interested in the ethical and societal implications of a host of emerging disciplines like nanotechnology, biogenetics and neurotechnology.
in the New Millennium.
Conference. Princeton, 1999. Available in RealVideo
- Dr. Harold T. Shapiro
Chairman of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission and President
of Princeton University
- Dr. Francis Collins
Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute of the National
Institutes of Health
- Dr. Ian Wilmut
Scientist at the Roslin Institute, Edinburgh and scientist who cloned
"Dolly" the Sheep
- Dr. Stephen Fodor
President and CEO of Affymetrix, Inc, the company that developed the
- The Ethics of Profit. The interplay of bioethics
and industry. Panelists:
- Judy Chambers
P. Roy Vagelos
Moderator: Shirley Tilghman
- Dr. Roy Vagelos
Chairman of the University of Pennsylvania Board of Trustees
and former Chairman of Merck & Co.
"Ethics, Health Care and Disability"
For an early and classic article on cloning by the co-author of "The
Double Helix," see James D. Watson, "Moving
toward the Clonal Man," Atlantic Monthly, May, 1971.
Trouble," Charlayne Hunter-Gault report on MacNiel-Lehrer NewsHour
on the presidential commision's recommendation to ban human cloning and interview
with Thomas Murray of the National Bioethics Advisory Comission.
For information on the recent cloning of mice, see the following:
- T. Wakayama, A. C. F. Perry, M. Zuccotti, K. R.
Johnson, R. Yanagimachi,
"Full-term development of mice from enucleated oocytes injected with
cumulus cell nuclei" Nature, Vol. 394, p. 369 (1998).
- "Adult Cloning Marches On, Nature, Vol. 394, p. 303
- "Cloning: A flock of Mice?" Nature,
Vol. 394, (1998).
In October 1997 Nature and the British
Council in France organized a one day meeting in Paris to debate approaches
to the ever more complex issues arising in bioethics.
- "Too Hot to Handle." Proceedings of the British
Council in France's meeting on bioethics.
to recent reports in Nature and the popular press, scientists at the
Roslin Institute in Scotland have succeeded
in cloning adult sheep. Here are some resources for discussing this issue:
- I. Wilmut, A. E. Schnieke, J. McWhir, A. J. Kind & K. H. S. Campbell,
offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells," Roslin
Institute Online: Cloning and Nuclear transfer
- K.H.S. Campbell, J. McWhir, W.A. Ritchie and I. Wilmut (1996), "Sheep
cloned by nuclear transfer from a cultured cell line." Roslin
Institute Online: Cloning and Nuclear transfer
- James K. Glassman, "Should
We Fear Dolly?" The Washington Post, Tuesday, February 25
1997; Page A17
- For background information on cloning, see
- Washington Post Editorial: "To
Clone a Sheep"
on Cloning from the Georgetown University Kennedy Center for Ethics.
- Los Angeles Times, "In
Our Own Image." A week-long series on cloning and related issues
- Nathan Myhrvold, "Human
Clones: Why Not? Opposition to cloning isn't just Luddism--it's racism,"
Slate, March 13, 1997.
- William Saletan, "The
- David Berreby, "Multiplicity:
Cloning, Nature, and Nurture." Slate.
- Human Cloning
Foundation, the official site in support of human cloning.
History of Cloning: Timeline." MSNBC
- Gilbert Meilaender, "Begetting
and Cloning," First Things, June/July, 1997. Meilander's
remarks were presented to the National Bioethics Advisory Commission on March
- Black, John. "Frozen
Embryos, Ice-Age Ethics & Cold Comfort: A Case Study in the Ethics of
- Richard Lewontin, "The
Confusion over Cloning," The New York Review of Books, October
- Harold T. Shapiro, James F. Childress, and Thomas H. Murray,
Confusion over Cloning An Exchange," The New York Review
National Bioethics Advisory Commission
Bioethics Advisory Commission Home Page,
Volume I. Report and Recommendations
Volume II. Commissioned Papers
- Full Document, 120 pages, in Adobe
Acrobat® (395 kb)
of Transmittal (21 kb, Acrobat)
Summary (19 kb, Acrobat)
(Chapter 1, 35 kb, Acrobat)
Science and Application of Cloning (Chapter 2, 126 kb, Acrobat)
Perspectives (Chapter 3, 71 kb, Acrobat)
Considerations (Chapter 4, 71 kb, Acrobat)
and Policy Considerations (Chapter 5, 64 kb, Acrobat)
of the Commission (Chapter 6, 15 kb, Acrobat)
(Glossary, List of Speakers, List of Commissioned Papers, 20 kb, Acrobat)
A Bibliographical Survey of Philosophical Literature on Bioethics, Cloning, & Reproductive Technologies
Human Gene Therapy
On Human Gene Therapy, see Mary Carrington Coutts, "Human
Gene Therapy," Scope Note 24. (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown
University, 1994); and Walters, LeRoy, and Kahn, Tamar Joy, eds., Bibliography
of Bioethics, Vols. 1-19 (Washington, D.C.: Kennedy Institute of Ethics,
On Surrogacy, see the extensive bibliography in Surrogate
Motherhood: Politics and Privacy, edited by Larry Gostin (Bloomington:
Indiana University Press, 1990), pp. 338-55.
In addition to the standard ethics journals, see the Hastings Center
Reports, BioEthics, Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Journal
of Medicine and Philosophy and Law, Medicine & Health Care.
Helen Bequaert Holmes, "Reproductive Technologies," Encyclopedia
of Ethics, edited by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker (New York:
Garland Publishing, Inc., 1992), Vol. II, pp. 1083-1089
There have been a number of national commissions, both here and in
England, that have prepared reports and policy recommendations on these issues.
See, among others, The President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems
in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavior Research, Splicing Life: The Social
and Ethical Issues of Genetic Engineering with Human Beings (Washington,
DC: GPO, 1982); Mary Warnock, A Question of Life: The Warnock Report on
Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1985); Jonathan
Glover et al., Fertility and the Family: The Glover Report on Reproductive
Technologies to the European Commission (London: Fourth Estate, 1989); American
Fertility Society, Ethics Committee, Ethical Considerations of the New Reproductive
Technologies, in Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 46, No. 3, supplment
1 (1986) and Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 53, No. 6, supplement 2 (1990)..
For a religious response to the Warnock report by the Regious Professor of Moral
and Pastoral Theory in the Univesity of Oxford, see Oliver O'Donovan, Begotten
or Made? (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984). For a survey of results of such
reports, see LeRoy Walters, "Ethical Aspects of the New Reporductive Technologies,"
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, No. 541 (1988). Pp. 646-664.
Most recently, see the Report of the National Bioethics Advisory Committee,
"Cloning Human Beings."
There are a number of excellent anthologies available in this area.
Among the general anthologies on issues in bioethics, see the excellent Contemporary
Issues in Bioethics, edited by Tom L. Beauchamp and LeRoy Walters, Fourth
Edition (Belmont: Wadsworth, 1994); for an excellent selection of both philosophical
and non-philosophical authors, see Genetic Engineering: Opposing Viewpoints
(San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1994) and Carol Levine, ed., Taking Sides:
Clashing View on Controversial Bioethical Issues (Guilford, CN: Dushkin,
Genetic Screening and Engineering
One of the principal areas of concern in regard to genetic screening
is sex selection. See Mary Anne Warren, Gendercide: The Implications
of Sex Selection (Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Allanheld, 1985); and her "IVF
and Women's Interests: An Analysis of Feminist Concerns," Bioethics
2, No. 1 (1988), pp. 37-57; for a review on recent feminist work in this and
related areas, see Anne Donchin, "The Growing Feminist Debate Over the
New Reproductive Technologies," Hypatia, Vol. 4, No. 3 (1989), pp.
136-149 (also see several other related articles in this volume); and Helen
Bequaert Holmes, "Sex Preselection: Eugenics for Everyone?" Biomedical
Ethics Reviews&endash 1985, edited by J. Humber and R. Almeders (Clifton,
NJ: Humana Press, 1985). Also see Michelle Stanworth, Reproductive Technologies:
Gender, Motherhood, and Medicine (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota
On the more general issues of genetic screening, see the special
issue of The American Journal of Law & Medicine, Vol. 17, Nos. 1-2
(1991) entitled The Human Genome Initiative and the Impact of Genetic Testing
and Screening Technology. Also see the essays in Code of Codes: Scientific
and Social Issues in the Human Genome Project, edited by Daniel J. Kevles
and Leroy Hood (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992).
For some excellent resources in regard to questions of genetic engineering,
see Ethical Issues in the New Reproductive Technologies, edited by Richard
Hull (Belmont: Wadsworth, 1990); Kenneth D. Alpern, The Ethics of Reproductive
Technology (New York: Oxford University Press); Sherill Cohen and Nadine
Taub, eds., Reproductive Laws for the 1990s (Clifton, NJ: Humana Press,
1989); Ruth F. Chadwick, ed., Ethics, Reproduction, and Genetic Control
(London: Croom Helm, 1987); Elaine Baruch, et al., Test Tube Women: What
Future for Motherhood? (London: Pandora, 1984) contains essays mostly against
new reproductive technologies; Clifford Grobstein's From Chance to Purpose:
An appraisal of External Human Fertilization (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley,
1981) and his later Science and the Unborn: Choosing Human Futures (New
York: Basic Books, 1988); Joseph Fletcher's The Ethics of Genetic Control:
Ending Reproductive Roulette (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1988) strongly
presents the case in favor of genetic manipulation, while Gena Corea's The
Mother Machine: Reproductive Technologies from Artificial Insemination to Artificial
Wombs (New York: Harper and Row, 1985) gives a strong presentation of argruments
against such maniupation. For a well-argued and balanced approach to these issues,
Perfect Baby: A Pragmatic Approach to Genetics, by Glenn
Also see the issue of The Hastings Center Report, Vol. 24, No.
2 ( March, 1994), with articles by Joseph Palca, "A Word to the Wise; on
the Approval of in vitro Fertilization Research;" John A. Robertson,
"The question of human cloning;" and Richard A. McCormick,
"Blastomere separation: some concerns; embryo splitting as a treatment
to in vitro fertilization." For a good collection of essays on the
status of the fetus, see Bioethics and the Fetus: Medical, Moral, and Legal
Issues, edited by James M. Humber (Clifton, NJ: Humana Press) and Peter
Singer et al., eds, Embryo Experimentation (New York: Cambridge University
Press). For a critique of the philosophical viability of the notion of the "pre-embryo,"
see A. A. Howsepian, "Who or What Are We?", Review of Metaphysics,
Vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 483-502, which replied to Richard McCormick's "Who
or What is the Preembryo?" in the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal;
Alan Holland, "A Fortnight of My Life Is Missing: A Discussion of the Status
of the Human 'Pre-Embryo,'" Applied Philosophy, edited by Brenda
Almond and Donald Hill (London: Routledge, 1991), pp. 299-311.
There is a wealth of literature available on surrogacy. See, among
many others, On the Problem of Surrogate Parenthood: Analyzing the
Baby M Case, edited by Herbert Richardson (Lewiston, N.Y.: The Edwin Mellen
Press, 1987), a collection of ten essays from a variety of standpoints dealing
with the moral issues raised by surroacy in general and the Baby M case in particular;
New Approaches to Human Reproduction, edited by Linda M. Whiteford and
Marilyn L. Poland (Boulder: Westview Press, 1989); Ruth Macklin, Surrogates
and Other Mothers (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994) covers a
range of issues about assisted reproduction, including surrogacy; also see her
earlier book, Moral Choices: Bioethics in Today's World (New York: Pantheon
Books, 1987). For a strong set of arguments against surrogacy, see Thomas A.
Shannon, Surrogate Motherhood: The Ethics of Using Human Beings (New
York: Crossroad, 1988). Also see Alexander Morgan Capron, "Grandma? No,
I'm the mother! postmenopausal women becoming pregnant with physician aid,"
The Hastings Center Report, Vol. 24 ; No. 2 (March, 1994), pp. 24 ff.
and B. D. Colen, "Whatever Happened to Baby Jane Doe? and Other Cases Involving
Reproductive Ethics," The Hastings Center Report, Vol. 24 ; No.
3 (May, 1994), pp. 2 f.
Bioethics and Religion
Among the works in this area, see John Mahoney's Bioethics and Belief
(Westminster, Maryland: Christian Classics, 1984), which explores the possibility
of a dialogue between Christianity and medicine in regard to IVF and other reproductive
issues; Theology and Bioethics. Exploring the Foundations and Frontier,
edited by Earl E. Shelp (Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1985), which contains twenty
essays on (1) theology, science, and bioethics; (2) foundations and frontiers
in religious bioethics, and (3) religious reasoning about bioethics and medical
practice. For the Vatican's position on these issues, see the Congregation for
the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction on Respect for Human Life in Its Origin
and on the Dignity of Procreation: Replies to Certain Questions of the Day
(Boston, MA: St. Paul Editions, 1987).
Summaries of Recent Literature on Reproductive Technologies
- John Black, "Frozen
embryos, Ice-Age Ethics & Cold Comfort: A Case Study in the Ethics of
Reproductive Medicine." Malaspina University College, January 1996. From
the Institute for Practical Philosophy at Malaspina University-College. Full
text available on-line.
- Talk of the Nation: "63
Year Old Mom." Guests: Dr. Gladys White, Executive Director, National
Advisory Board on Ethics in Reproduction; Karen Lehrman, Feminist Writer and
Author, Lipstick Proviso (Anchor Books 1997), Former editor, New
Republic magazine and The Washington Post. April 28, 1997.
- CNN - Genetic
cancer screening poses dilemma - Jan. 23, 1996